Within 2 miles 5 miles 10 miles 15 miles 20 miles 50 miles 75 miles miles miles miles miles miles miles miles miles of. Various sources differ considerably in the definitions of perfume types. Guaranteed by Mon, Oct It is doubtful whether perfumes qualify as appropriate copyright subject matter under the US Copyright Act.
What Are Fragrance Concentrations?
Instead of building a perfume from "ground up", many modern perfumes and colognes are made using fragrance bases or simply bases. Each base is essentially modular perfume that is blended from essential oils and aromatic chemicals, and formulated with a simple concept such as "fresh cut grass" or "juicy sour apple". Many of Guerlain 's Aqua Allegoria line, with their simple fragrance concepts, are good examples of what perfume fragrance bases are like.
The effort used in developing bases by fragrance companies or individual perfumers may equal that of a marketed perfume, since they are useful in that they are reusable. On top of its reusability, the benefit in using bases for construction are quite numerous:. This is particularly due to the presence of natural essential oils and other ingredients consisting of complex chemical mixtures.
Antique or badly preserved perfumes undergoing this analysis can also be difficult due to the numerous degradation by-products and impurities that may have resulted from breakdown of the odorous compounds. Ingredients and compounds can usually be ruled out or identified using gas chromatograph GC smellers, which allow individual chemical components to be identified both through their physical properties and their scent. Reverse engineering of best-selling perfumes in the market is a very common practice in the fragrance industry due to the relative simplicity of operating GC equipment, the pressure to produce marketable fragrances, and the highly lucrative nature of the perfume market.
It is doubtful whether perfumes qualify as appropriate copyright subject matter under the US Copyright Act. The issue has not yet been addressed by any US court. A perfume's scent is not eligible for trademark protection because the scent serves as the functional purpose of the product. The French Supreme Court has twice taken the position that perfumes lack the creativity to constitute copyrightable expressions Bsiri-Barbir v.
Senteur Mazal , Perfume ingredients, regardless of natural or synthetic origins, may all cause health or environmental problems when used. Although the areas are under active research, much remains to be learned about the effects of fragrance on human health and the environment.
Evidence in peer-reviewed journals shows that some fragrances can cause asthmatic reactions in some individuals, especially those with severe or atopic asthma. In some cases, an excessive use of perfumes may cause allergic reactions of the skin. For instance, acetophenone , ethyl acetate [ citation needed ] and acetone  while present in many perfumes, are also known or potential respiratory allergens. Nevertheless, this may be misleading, since the harm presented by many of these chemicals either natural or synthetic is dependent on environmental conditions and their concentrations in a perfume.
For instance, linalool, which is listed as an irritant, causes skin irritation when it degrades to peroxides, however the use of antioxidants in perfumes or reduction in concentrations can prevent this. As well, the furanocoumarin present in natural extracts of grapefruit or celery can cause severe allergic reactions and increase sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation.
Some research on natural aromatics have shown that many contain compounds that cause skin irritation. A number of national and international surveys have identified balsam of Peru , often used in perfumes, as being in the "top five" allergens most commonly causing patch test reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics.
Balsam of Peru is used as a marker for perfume allergy. There is scientific evidence that nitro-musks such as musk xylene could cause cancer in some specific animal tests.
Although other ingredients such as polycyclic synthetic musks , have been reported to be positive in some in-vitro hormone assays,   these reports have been reviewed by various authorities. Reviews with similar positive outcome exists for another main polycyclic musk AHTN as well for instance on its safe use in cosmetics by the EU.
Many natural aromatics, such as oakmoss absolutes,   basil oil, rose oil and many others contain allergens or carcinogenic compounds, the safety of which is either governed by regulations e.
Certain chemicals found in perfume are often toxic, at least for small insects if not for humans. For example, the compound Tricyclodecenyl allyl ether is often found in synthetic perfumes   and has insect repellent property.
Synthetic musks are pleasant in smell and relatively inexpensive, as such they are often employed in large quantities to cover the unpleasant scent of laundry detergents and many personal cleaning products.
Due to their large-scale use, several types of synthetic musks have been found in human fat and milk,  as well as in the sediments and waters of the Great Lakes.
These pollutants may pose additional health and environmental problems when they enter human and animal diets. The demands for aromatic materials such as sandalwood, agarwood, and musk have led to the endangerment of these species, as well as illegal trafficking and harvesting.
The perfume industry in the US is not directly regulated by the FDA, instead the FDA controls the safety of perfumes through their ingredients and requires that they be tested to the extent that they are Generally recognized as safe GRAS. Due to the need for protection of trade secrets, companies rarely give the full listing of ingredients regardless of their effects on health.
In Europe, as from 11 March , the mandatory listing of a set of 26 recognized fragrance allergens was enforced. The limits above which the allegens are required to be declared are 0. This has resulted in many old perfumes like chypres and fougère classes, which require the use of oakmoss extract, being reformulated.
Fragrance compounds in perfumes will degrade or break down if improperly stored in the presence of heat , light , oxygen , and extraneous organic materials. Proper preservation of perfumes involves keeping them away from sources of heat and storing them where they will not be exposed to light. An opened bottle will keep its aroma intact for several years, as long as it is well stored. Perfumes are best preserved when kept in light-tight aluminium bottles or in their original packaging when not in use, and refrigerated to relatively low temperatures: Although it is difficult to completely remove oxygen from the headspace of a stored flask of fragrance, opting for spray dispensers instead of rollers and "open" bottles will minimize oxygen exposure.
Sprays also have the advantage of isolating fragrance inside a bottle and preventing it from mixing with dust, skin, and detritus, which would degrade and alter the quality of a perfume. There exist several archives and museums devoted to the preservation of historical perfumes, namely the Osmothèque , which stocks over 3, perfumes from the past two millennia in their original formulations.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the fragrant substance. For other uses, see Perfume disambiguation. This article's lead section may not adequately summarize its contents. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines , please consider modifying the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's key points in such a way that it can stand on its own as a concise version of the article. Coco Mademoiselle from Chanel. List of perfumes and List of celebrity-branded fragrances. Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 21 June Retrieved 6 June So, What's All the Sniff About?: So Whats all the Sniff about.
This fragrance was said to have therapeutic properties to aid with headaches and heart palpitations. It was designed as a non-gender aroma that would enhance one's mood. Archived from the original on 3 February The New York Times. Retrieved July 13, What makes them different — and in many cases, more expensive? Archived from the original on 31 July Retrieved 7 November Retrieved 8 August Complementary Medicine, Beauty and Modelling.
The Encyclopedia of Skin and Skin Disorders. Archived from the original on 8 November The Emperor of Scent: Journal of Chemical Education. Retrieved 13 July Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 17 December Retrieved 19 February Prinsloo; Louis Scott; Anna K.
South African Journal of Science. Archived from the original PDF on 6 June Archived from the original on 23 February Scent innovation through analogical reconfiguration.
Henry Holt and Co. Retrieved 7 May Int J Hyg Environ Health. Biocompatibility of Dental Materials. Retrieved 5 March Anais Anais L'Original released Original Musk No 1. This scent possesses a blend of blood orange passion fruit citron pink magnolia quince blossom stephanotis white cedar musk and vanilla.
Mackie by Bob Mackie is a sophisticated and feminine fragrance. A gourmand base of brown sugar, black cherry and amber add sensuality to the scent.
Apply liberally and drink in. Brit Sheer By Burberry. Eau de Lacoste L. The fragrance bursts open with modern chyphre pear and green notes. The heart of tiger orchid accentuates the opening boldness and balances it with floral sweetness. Charlie Gold was launched in the year Elizabeth Taylor White Diamonds 3.
Yohji Yamamoto Eau De Toilette 0,34 fl. Yellow Diamond by Versace 3. Cool Water by Davidoff Perfume 3. Revlon Charlie Blue 3. Great prices on popular products Compare at price is the price for the same product offered in the online market.
Versace Bright Crystal 3. Got one to sell? You May Also Like. Givenchy Dahlia Noir 2. Pure Fuel Diesel 3. United Colors of Benetton. Fragrance Name see all. La vie est belle. Fragrance Type see all. First Known Use of eau de toilette , in the meaning defined above. History and Etymology for eau de toilette French, literally, water for washing and dressing. Learn More about eau de toilette. Share eau de toilette. Resources for eau de toilette Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared.
Dictionary Entries near eau de toilette eau de Javelle eau de nile eau de parfum eau de toilette eau-de-vie eau-de-vie de marc eave. Statistics for eau de toilette Look-up Popularity. Time Traveler for eau de toilette The first known use of eau de toilette was in See more words from the same year.
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The same fragrance may come in a variety of forms
Perfume (Eau de Parfum) – Historically genderless, used to describe both men’s and women’s fragrances. The best term used to describe a fragrance. The best term used to describe a fragrance. Eau de Toilette, however, does fade away a bit faster than Eau de Parfum. A good example of a classic Eau de Toilette is the quintessential ' Eau d'Hadrien ' by Annick Goutal -a fresh breath of the Mediterranean - with its fresh citrus fruit combination of lemon, grapefruit, green . Mar 12, · The main difference between types of fragrance lies in the concentration of essences. The order of highest to lowest concentration is first Perfume, second, Eau de Parfum, third, Eau de Toilette, and fourth Eau de Cologne.